标签 github 下的文章

Go是如何缓解供应链攻击的[译]

本文永久链接 – https://tonybai.com/2022/04/02/how-go-mitigates-supply-chain-attacks

这些年来,关于软件供应链的安全问题频发,软件供应链已然成为IT安全领域的一个热点,在前不久的《聊聊Go语言的软件供应链安全》一文中我曾提到过Go在SBOM(软件物料清单)方面给开发人员带来的方便。这两天Go官博又发表了一篇由Go项目安全负责人Filippo Valsorda撰写的文章《How Go Mitigates Supply Chain Attacks》,系统总结了Go语言应对软件供应链方面攻击的“防护秘笈”。笔者觉得文章中提到的这些点是每个Gopher都应该知道的必备知识,于是这里将文章做简单翻译,供大家参考。


现代软件工程基于相互协作,并以重用开源软件为基础。但这也使软件项目成为了供应链攻击的目标,攻击方式就是破坏软件项目的依赖(dependencies)。

尽管知道这些,为了完成项目,我们需要依赖,我们会采取一些流程或技术措施在项目与依赖之间建立一种信任关系。好在,Go的工具链与设计可以帮助我们降低各个阶段的风险。

所有构建都是被“锁定(locked)”的

外部世界的变化,比如项目的某个依赖发布了一个新版本,是不会影响到Go的构建的。

与其他大多数软件包管理器(package manager)所使用的配置文件不同,Go module没有将存储约束列表的文件和锁定特定版本的lock文件分开管理,对任何Go构建作出贡献的每个依赖项的版本完全由main module的go.mod文件决定。

Go 1.16版本开始,Go命令默认按照这种确定性执行,如果go.mod不完整,构建命令(go build, go test, go install, go run, …)将失败。唯一可以改变go.mod文件(当然构建也会随之改变)的命令是go get和go mod tidy。这两个命令通常不会自动运行或在CI中运行,所以对依赖树的改变必须是主观故意的,我们可以在操作前对这种改变做代码评审。

这对安全非常重要,因为当CI系统或新机器运行时,签入(checked-in)的源码是最终的和完整的,代码将说明什么会被构建,第三方没有办法影响它。

此外,当用go get添加新依赖时,由于最小版本选择的存在,它的传递依赖(transitive dependencies)的指定版本,不是最新版本,也会被添加到go.mod文件中。同样的情况也发生在调用go install example.com/cmd/devtoolx@latest 的情况下,在某些生态系统中,同样的构建发生时会绕过“已锁定”的版本(译注:去获取依赖的最新版本)。但在Go中,example.com/cmd/devtoolx的最新版本将被获取,但其所有的依赖项的版本将取决于其go.mod文件中的设置。

如果一个module被破坏,新的恶意版本被发布,没有人会受到影响,直到他们明确地更新该依赖关系,这种方式为gopher提供了审查变化的机会,并为生态系统提供时间来检测该事件会引发的影响。

版本内容永不改变

确保第三方不能影响构建的另一个关键属性是,module版本的内容是不可改变的。如果一个破坏某依赖项的攻击者可以重新上传该依赖项的一个现有的版本,那么他就可以自动破坏所有依赖该依赖项的项目。

这就是go.sum文件的作用。它包含了对构建有贡献的每个依赖项的加密哈希值的列表。同样,一个不完整的go.sum会导致一个错误,并且只有go get和go mod tidy会修改它,所以对它的任何修改都会伴随着一个主观故意的依赖性的改变。其他的构建将被保证有一套完整的校验和。

这是大多数lock文件的一个共同特征。但Go通过校验和数据库(简称sumdb)领先了一步,sumdb是一个全局性的、仅可附加的(append)、加密验证的go.sum条目列表。当go get需要在go.sum文件中添加一个条目时,它从sumdb中获取该条目,并对sumdb的完整性进行加密证明。这不仅确保了某一module的每一次构建都使用相同的依赖,而且确保了每一个module都使用相同的依赖内容。

sumdb使那些试图用修改过的(例如放置后门的)源码来攻击特定依赖项变为不可能,甚至谷歌自己运维的Go基础设施也做不到。

它将保证你使用的代码与其他使用例如example.com/modulex v1.9.2的人所使用的代码完全相同,并且已经过审查。

最后,我最喜欢sumdb的特点:它不需要module作者的任何密钥管理,而且它与Go module的非中心化特性无缝连接。

VCS是真相之源

大多数项目是通过一些版本控制系统(VCS)开发的。在其他生态系统中,这些项目还需要被再次上传到中心软件包库(译注:比如js生态中的npm)。这意味着有两个账户可能被入侵,一个是VCS主机,另一个是中心软件包库。对后者的攻击使用得更少,也更容易被忽视。这也意味着在上传到中心仓库的版本中更容易隐藏恶意代码,尤其是当源码作为上传的一部分被例行修改时,比如说将其最小化(译注:比如js代码的压缩)。

在Go中,不存在中心包库账户这样的东西。包的导入路径包含了go mod download所需要的信息,以便go命令直接从VCS中获取其module,vcs上的标签定义了module的版本。

我们确实有Go Module Mirror,但那只是一个代理。module作者不需要注册账户,也不需要向代理上传版本。代理使用与go工具链相同的逻辑(事实上,代理运行go module download)来获取和缓存一个版本。由于校验数据库保证一个给定的module版本只能有一个源码树,每个使用代理的人都会看到从代理获取的结果与绕过代理直接从VCS获取的结果是相同的。(如果该版本在VCS中不再可用,或者其内容发生了变化,直接获取将导致错误,而从代理获取可能仍然有效,提高了可用性并保护生态系统免受“左键”问题的影响)。

在客户端运行VCS工具会暴露出一个相当大的攻击面。这也是Go module mirror的另一个作用:代理上的Go工具在一个强大的沙盒内运行,并被配置为支持所有的VCS工具,而默认的是只支持两个主要的VCS系统(git和Mercurial)。任何使用代理的人仍然可以获取使用非默认的VCS系统发布的代码,但攻击者在大多数安装中无法接触到这些代码。

仅构建代码,但并不会执行它

Go工具链的一个明确的安全设计目标是,无论是获取还是构建代码,都不会让代码执行,无论代码是否是不被信任的和恶意的。这与其他大多数生态系统不同,许多生态系统在获取软件包时对运行代码提供了first-class的支持。这些”post-install”的钩子在过去被用作一种最方便的攻击方式:通过受到攻击的依赖攻击开发者的机器,并通过module作者进行蠕虫攻击

公平地说,如果你要获取一些代码,往往会在不久之后执行,要么作为开发者机器上的测试的一部分,要么作为生产中的二进制文件的一部分,所以缺乏post-install钩子只会减缓攻击者。(在构建过程中没有安全边界:任何有助于构建的软件包都可以定义一个init函数)。然而,它可以成为一个有意义的风险缓解措施,因为你可能正在执行一个二进制文件或测试一个包,而这个包只使用module依赖的一个子集。例如,如果你在macOS上构建并执行example.com/cmd/devtoolx,那么针对Windows的依赖或example.com/cmd/othertool的依赖就不可能危害到你的机器。

在Go中,没有为特定构建提供代码的module对构建没有安全影响(译注:得益于Go 1.17引入的module依赖图修剪)。

“一点复制比一点依赖性好”

在Go生态系统中,最后一个可能也是最重要的软件供应链风险缓解措施,可能也是最没有技术含量的一个:Go有一种拒绝大型依赖树的文化,宁可复制一点也不愿意增加新的依赖关系。这可以追溯到Go的一个谚语:“一点复制比一点依赖性好”。”零依赖”的标签总是被高质量的可重复使用的Go module所自豪地佩戴。如果你发现自己需要一个这样的库,你很可能会发现它不会导致你依赖其他作者和所有者的几十个module。

丰富的标准库和附加module(golang.org/x/…的module)也使之成为可能,这些module提供了常用的高级构建模块,如HTTP栈、TLS库、JSON编码等。

所有这些意味着只需少量的依赖关系就可以建立丰富、复杂的应用程序。无论工具有多好,它都不能消除重复使用代码的风险,所以最有力的缓解措施永远是一个小的依赖树


“Gopher部落”知识星球旨在打造一个精品Go学习和进阶社群!高品质首发Go技术文章,“三天”首发阅读权,每年两期Go语言发展现状分析,每天提前1小时阅读到新鲜的Gopher日报,网课、技术专栏、图书内容前瞻,六小时内必答保证等满足你关于Go语言生态的所有需求!2022年,Gopher部落全面改版,将持续分享Go语言与Go应用领域的知识、技巧与实践,并增加诸多互动形式。欢迎大家加入!

img{512x368}
img{512x368}

img{512x368}
img{512x368}
img{512x368}

我爱发短信:企业级短信平台定制开发专家 https://51smspush.com/。smspush : 可部署在企业内部的定制化短信平台,三网覆盖,不惧大并发接入,可定制扩展; 短信内容你来定,不再受约束, 接口丰富,支持长短信,签名可选。2020年4月8日,中国三大电信运营商联合发布《5G消息白皮书》,51短信平台也会全新升级到“51商用消息平台”,全面支持5G RCS消息。

著名云主机服务厂商DigitalOcean发布最新的主机计划,入门级Droplet配置升级为:1 core CPU、1G内存、25G高速SSD,价格5$/月。有使用DigitalOcean需求的朋友,可以打开这个链接地址:https://m.do.co/c/bff6eed92687 开启你的DO主机之路。

Gopher Daily(Gopher每日新闻)归档仓库 – https://github.com/bigwhite/gopherdaily

我的联系方式:

  • 微博:https://weibo.com/bigwhite20xx
  • 微信公众号:iamtonybai
  • 博客:tonybai.com
  • github: https://github.com/bigwhite
  • “Gopher部落”知识星球:https://public.zsxq.com/groups/51284458844544

商务合作方式:撰稿、出书、培训、在线课程、合伙创业、咨询、广告合作。

Go是否支持增量构建?我来告诉你!

本文永久链接 – https://tonybai.com/2022/03/21/go-native-support-incremental-build

Go语言以编译速度快闻名于码农界。这缘于Go在设计之初就选择抛弃其祖辈C语言的头文件包含机制,选择了以包(package)作为基本编译单元。Go语言的这种以包为基本构建单元的构建模型使得依赖分析变得十分简单,避免了C语言那种通过头文件分析依赖的巨大开销。在我的《Go语言精进之路》一书中,我也给出了Go编译速度快的三点具体原因,包括:

  • Go要求每个源文件在开头处显式地列出所有依赖的包导入,这样Go编译器不必读取和处理整个文件就可以确定其依赖的包列表;
  • Go要求包之间不能存在循环依赖,这样一个包的依赖关系便形成了一张有向无环图。由于无环,包可以被单独编译,也可以并行编译;
  • 已编译的Go包对应的目标文件(file_name.o或package_name.a)中不仅记录了该包本身的导出符号信息,还记录了其所依赖包的导出符号信息。这样,Go编译器在编译某包P时,针对P依赖的每个包导入(比如:导入包Q),只需读取一个目标文件即可(比如:Q包编译成的目标文件,该目标文件中已经包含了Q包的依赖包的导出信息),而无需再读取其他文件中的信息了。

不过近期有读者问到:Go是否支持增量构建(incremental build)?这是一个好问题,书中并未提到这方面内容。但语言编译器编译速度再快,如果没有增量构建,构建大型代码工程的时间也不会短。那么Go是否支持增量构建呢?在这篇文章中,我就来告诉你答案。

1. 什么是增量构建?

提到构建(build),我们通常所指的是静态编译型语言,比如:C、Go、Java等。Python等动态语言不需要构建,直接用解释器run即可。每种静态编译型编程语言通常都有自己的编译单元,比如Go的编译单元为一个package,c/c++的编译单元是一个c/c++源文件,java则以class为编译单元等。静态语言的构建就是将编译单元的源码编译为对应的中间目标文件(.o/.a/.class),然后将这些目标文件通过链接器链接在一起形成最终可执行文件的过程。不过Java除外,java在编译过程没有链接环节,jvm加载class文件时会有一个链接过程。

那么问题来了:每次项目构建,项目中的所有源文件都要被重新编译一遍而形成新的中间目标文件吗?如果我只改动了一个源文件中的几行代码,项目中的其他源文件也要跟着重新编译一遍么?我们显然不希望这样浪费算力、浪费开发者时间的事情发生!

为了避免这样的事情发生,“增量构建”被提了出来。简单来说就是每次构建仅重新编译变动了的编译单元以及对这些变动的编译单元有依赖的编译单元的源码

上图展示了一个项目的编译单元的依赖关系。当开发人员修改了编译单元C的源码后,如果该项目支持增量编译,那么再次构建这个项目时,仅变动的编译单元C的源码以及直接依赖C的B、间接依赖C的A会被重新编译,而D、E两个编译单元不会被重新编译,其中间目标文件会被链接器重用。

对增量编译的支持,有两种策略:一种是编程语言的编译器自身就支持,比如Rust。另外一种则是语言自身编译器不支持,需要通过第三方项目构建管理工具协助实现,最典型的就是C/C++与Make/CMake的组合。

那么Go语言的编译器go compiler(gc)是否本身就支持增量编译呢?是否需要通过外部项目构建管理工具协助呢?我们继续往下看。

2. 通过示例看Go是否支持增量构建

Go语言提供了统一的go工具链,在这个工具链中用于构建的命令只有一个,那就是go build。下面我们就通过一系列实例来验证一下Go是否原生支持增量构建。

该示例的项目结构如下:

demo1/
├── go.mod
├── main.go
├── pkg1/
│   └── pkg1.go
└── pkg2/
    └── pkg2.go

a) 首次构建

在这个项目中,顶层的module为demo1,main包依赖pkg1包与pkg2包。我们先通过go build命令对该项目做首次构建,我们通过命令行参数-x -v输出构建的详细日志,以便于我们分析:

$go build -x -v 

### 笔者注:创建临时目录用于此次构建

WORK=/var/folders/cz/sbj5kg2d3m3c6j650z0qfm800000gn/T/go-build1907281507
cd /Users/tonybai/test/go
git status --porcelain
cd /Users/tonybai/test/go
git show -s --no-show-signature --format=%H:%ct
demo1/pkg2
demo1/pkg1
mkdir -p $WORK/b003/
mkdir -p $WORK/b002/
cat >$WORK/b003/importcfg << 'EOF' # internal
# import config
EOF

### 笔者注:编译demo1/pkg1和demo1/pkg2包

cd /Users/tonybai/test/go/incremental-build/demo1
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/compile -o $WORK/b003/_pkg_.a -trimpath "$WORK/b003=>" -p demo1/pkg2 -lang=go1.18 -complete -buildid 4ixic55Fpug9OyS7vsew/4ixic55Fpug9OyS7vsew -goversion go1.18rc1 -c=4 -nolocalimports -importcfg $WORK/b003/importcfg -pack ./pkg2/pkg2.go
cat >$WORK/b002/importcfg << 'EOF' # internal
# import config
EOF
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/compile -o $WORK/b002/_pkg_.a -trimpath "$WORK/b002=>" -p demo1/pkg1 -lang=go1.18 -complete -buildid jgyT36iBuu6-dYIzK5SD/jgyT36iBuu6-dYIzK5SD -goversion go1.18rc1 -c=4 -nolocalimports -importcfg $WORK/b002/importcfg -pack ./pkg1/pkg1.go
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/buildid -w $WORK/b003/_pkg_.a # internal
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/buildid -w $WORK/b002/_pkg_.a # internal

### 笔者注:将编译demo1/pkg1和demo1/pkg2包得到的目标文件缓存到gocache中

cp $WORK/b003/_pkg_.a /Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/fe/fef7890aa0cf3bb97e872d2b49cd834a5fad87cd5d8bf052dca65e4cecb541d2-d # internal
cp $WORK/b002/_pkg_.a /Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/24/24519941f74b316c8e83f2d2462b62370692c5f56b04ec3df97e3124ff8b4633-d # internal

runtime
mkdir -p $WORK/b004/
cat >$WORK/b004/go_asm.h << 'EOF' # internal
EOF
cd /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/asm -p runtime -trimpath "$WORK/b004=>" -I $WORK/b004/ -I /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/include -D GOOS_darwin -D GOARCH_amd64 -compiling-runtime -D GOAMD64_v1 -gensymabis -o $WORK/b004/symabis ./asm.s ./asm_amd64.s ./duff_amd64.s ./memclr_amd64.s ./memmove_amd64.s ./preempt_amd64.s ./rt0_darwin_amd64.s ./sys_darwin_amd64.s
cat >$WORK/b004/importcfg << 'EOF' # internal
# import config
packagefile internal/abi=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/abi.a
packagefile internal/bytealg=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/bytealg.a
packagefile internal/cpu=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/cpu.a
packagefile internal/goarch=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/goarch.a
packagefile internal/goexperiment=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/goexperiment.a
packagefile internal/goos=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/goos.a
packagefile runtime/internal/atomic=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/runtime/internal/atomic.a
packagefile runtime/internal/math=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/runtime/internal/math.a
packagefile runtime/internal/sys=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/runtime/internal/sys.a
EOF

### 笔者注:由于笔者在执行build前使用go clean -cache将所有cache清空,因此这里go build会重新编译Go运行时库并缓存到gocache中

cd /Users/tonybai/test/go/incremental-build/demo1
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/compile -o $WORK/b004/_pkg_.a -trimpath "$WORK/b004=>" -p runtime -std -+ -buildid cjuCOFTfsWmpOEnkAPsP/cjuCOFTfsWmpOEnkAPsP -goversion go1.18rc1 -symabis $WORK/b004/symabis -c=4 -nolocalimports -importcfg $WORK/b004/importcfg -pack -asmhdr $WORK/b004/go_asm.h /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/alg.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/asan0.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/atomic_pointer.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/cgo.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/cgocall.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/cgocallback.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/cgocheck.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/chan.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/checkptr.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/compiler.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/complex.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/cpuflags.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/cpuflags_amd64.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/cpuprof.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/cputicks.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/debug.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/debugcall.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/debuglog.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/debuglog_off.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/defs_darwin_amd64.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/env_posix.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/error.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/extern.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/fastlog2.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/fastlog2table.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/float.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/hash64.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/heapdump.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/histogram.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/iface.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/lfstack.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/lfstack_64bit.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/lock_sema.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/lockrank.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/lockrank_off.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/malloc.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/map.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/map_fast32.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/map_fast64.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/map_faststr.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mbarrier.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mbitmap.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mcache.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mcentral.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mcheckmark.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mem_darwin.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/metrics.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mfinal.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mfixalloc.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mgc.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mgcmark.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mgcpacer.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mgcscavenge.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mgcstack.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mgcsweep.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mgcwork.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mheap.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mpagealloc.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mpagealloc_64bit.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mpagecache.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mpallocbits.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mprof.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mranges.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/msan0.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/msize.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mspanset.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mstats.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/mwbbuf.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/nbpipe_pipe.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/netpoll.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/netpoll_kqueue.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/os_darwin.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/os_nonopenbsd.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/panic.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/plugin.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/preempt.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/preempt_nonwindows.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/print.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/proc.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/profbuf.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/proflabel.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/race0.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/rdebug.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/relax_stub.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/runtime.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/runtime1.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/runtime2.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/rwmutex.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/select.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/sema.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/signal_amd64.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/signal_darwin.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/signal_darwin_amd64.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/signal_unix.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/sigqueue.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/sizeclasses.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/slice.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/softfloat64.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/stack.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/string.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/stubs.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/stubs_amd64.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/stubs_nonlinux.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/symtab.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/sys_darwin.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/sys_libc.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/sys_nonppc64x.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/sys_x86.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/time.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/time_nofake.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/timestub.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/tls_stub.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/trace.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/traceback.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/type.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/typekind.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/utf8.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/vdso_in_none.go /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime/write_err.go
cd /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/src/runtime
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/asm -p runtime -trimpath "$WORK/b004=>" -I $WORK/b004/ -I /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/include -D GOOS_darwin -D GOARCH_amd64 -compiling-runtime -D GOAMD64_v1 -o $WORK/b004/asm.o ./asm.s
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/asm -p runtime -trimpath "$WORK/b004=>" -I $WORK/b004/ -I /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/include -D GOOS_darwin -D GOARCH_amd64 -compiling-runtime -D GOAMD64_v1 -o $WORK/b004/asm_amd64.o ./asm_amd64.s
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/asm -p runtime -trimpath "$WORK/b004=>" -I $WORK/b004/ -I /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/include -D GOOS_darwin -D GOARCH_amd64 -compiling-runtime -D GOAMD64_v1 -o $WORK/b004/duff_amd64.o ./duff_amd64.s
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/asm -p runtime -trimpath "$WORK/b004=>" -I $WORK/b004/ -I /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/include -D GOOS_darwin -D GOARCH_amd64 -compiling-runtime -D GOAMD64_v1 -o $WORK/b004/memclr_amd64.o ./memclr_amd64.s
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/asm -p runtime -trimpath "$WORK/b004=>" -I $WORK/b004/ -I /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/include -D GOOS_darwin -D GOARCH_amd64 -compiling-runtime -D GOAMD64_v1 -o $WORK/b004/memmove_amd64.o ./memmove_amd64.s
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/asm -p runtime -trimpath "$WORK/b004=>" -I $WORK/b004/ -I /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/include -D GOOS_darwin -D GOARCH_amd64 -compiling-runtime -D GOAMD64_v1 -o $WORK/b004/preempt_amd64.o ./preempt_amd64.s
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/asm -p runtime -trimpath "$WORK/b004=>" -I $WORK/b004/ -I /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/include -D GOOS_darwin -D GOARCH_amd64 -compiling-runtime -D GOAMD64_v1 -o $WORK/b004/rt0_darwin_amd64.o ./rt0_darwin_amd64.s
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/asm -p runtime -trimpath "$WORK/b004=>" -I $WORK/b004/ -I /Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/include -D GOOS_darwin -D GOARCH_amd64 -compiling-runtime -D GOAMD64_v1 -o $WORK/b004/sys_darwin_amd64.o ./sys_darwin_amd64.s
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/pack r $WORK/b004/_pkg_.a $WORK/b004/asm.o $WORK/b004/asm_amd64.o $WORK/b004/duff_amd64.o $WORK/b004/memclr_amd64.o $WORK/b004/memmove_amd64.o $WORK/b004/preempt_amd64.o $WORK/b004/rt0_darwin_amd64.o $WORK/b004/sys_darwin_amd64.o # internal
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/buildid -w $WORK/b004/_pkg_.a # internal
cp $WORK/b004/_pkg_.a /Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/0e/0e28018e12d646c32443e88953b839c7ba0be3198e6a61afc8a74c0b3e76696a-d # internal
demo1
mkdir -p $WORK/b001/
cat >$WORK/b001/importcfg << 'EOF' # internal
# import config
packagefile demo1/pkg1=$WORK/b002/_pkg_.a
packagefile demo1/pkg2=$WORK/b003/_pkg_.a
packagefile runtime=$WORK/b004/_pkg_.a
EOF

### 笔者注:编译main包并缓存

cd /Users/tonybai/test/go/incremental-build/demo1
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/compile -o $WORK/b001/_pkg_.a -trimpath "$WORK/b001=>" -p main -lang=go1.18 -complete -buildid ZhPqHmBh6WQ6HFsDI1Yh/ZhPqHmBh6WQ6HFsDI1Yh -goversion go1.18rc1 -c=4 -nolocalimports -importcfg $WORK/b001/importcfg -pack ./main.go
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/buildid -w $WORK/b001/_pkg_.a # internal
cp $WORK/b001/_pkg_.a /Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/e8/e86257379cbdd59856f799594b63f3bb33ae89011955fee50e6fe90d3809ce5a-d # internal
cat >$WORK/b001/importcfg.link << 'EOF' # internal
packagefile demo1=$WORK/b001/_pkg_.a
packagefile demo1/pkg1=$WORK/b002/_pkg_.a
packagefile demo1/pkg2=$WORK/b003/_pkg_.a
packagefile runtime=$WORK/b004/_pkg_.a
packagefile internal/abi=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/abi.a
packagefile internal/bytealg=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/bytealg.a
packagefile internal/cpu=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/cpu.a
packagefile internal/goarch=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/goarch.a
packagefile internal/goexperiment=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/goexperiment.a
packagefile internal/goos=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/goos.a
packagefile runtime/internal/atomic=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/runtime/internal/atomic.a
packagefile runtime/internal/math=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/runtime/internal/math.a
packagefile runtime/internal/sys=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/runtime/internal/sys.a
modinfo "0w\xaf\f\x92t\b\x02A\xe1\xc1\a\xe6\xd6\x18\xe6path\tdemo1\nmod\tdemo1\t(devel)\t\nbuild\t-compiler=gc\nbuild\tCGO_ENABLED=1\nbuild\tCGO_CFLAGS=\nbuild\tCGO_CPPFLAGS=\nbuild\tCGO_CXXFLAGS=\nbuild\tCGO_LDFLAGS=\nbuild\tGOARCH=amd64\nbuild\tGOOS=darwin\nbuild\tGOAMD64=v1\nbuild\tvcs=git\nbuild\tvcs.revision=6534186d4b5b80c6c056237191fc703fa99cd19e\nbuild\tvcs.time=2022-03-12T13:52:57Z\nbuild\tvcs.modified=true\n\xf92C1\x86\x18 r\x00\x82B\x10A\x16\xd8\xf2"
EOF
mkdir -p $WORK/b001/exe/
cd .

### 笔者注:执行链接过程

/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/link -o $WORK/b001/exe/a.out -importcfg $WORK/b001/importcfg.link -buildmode=exe -buildid=mzN3WRwHiNhsESy6r89L/ZhPqHmBh6WQ6HFsDI1Yh/Nvx0U2gM2zWzj7FTESXk/mzN3WRwHiNhsESy6r89L -extld=clang $WORK/b001/_pkg_.a
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/buildid -w $WORK/b001/exe/a.out # internal

### 笔者注:将构建出来的可执行文件放到正确位置并改名
mv $WORK/b001/exe/a.out demo1
rm -r $WORK/b001/

b) 删除可执行文件后,再次构建

接下来我们删除之前构建出来的可执行文件demo1,然后再执行一次go build:

$go build -x -v
WORK=/var/folders/cz/sbj5kg2d3m3c6j650z0qfm800000gn/T/go-build3889005616
cd /Users/tonybai/test/go
git status --porcelain
cd /Users/tonybai/test/go
git show -s --no-show-signature --format=%H:%ct
mkdir -p $WORK/b001/
cat >$WORK/b001/importcfg.link << 'EOF' # internal

### 笔者注:这次构建直接使用了上一次缓存的各个包的缓存结果 

packagefile demo1=/Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/e8/e86257379cbdd59856f799594b63f3bb33ae89011955fee50e6fe90d3809ce5a-d
packagefile demo1/pkg1=/Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/24/24519941f74b316c8e83f2d2462b62370692c5f56b04ec3df97e3124ff8b4633-d
packagefile demo1/pkg2=/Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/fe/fef7890aa0cf3bb97e872d2b49cd834a5fad87cd5d8bf052dca65e4cecb541d2-d
packagefile runtime=/Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/0e/0e28018e12d646c32443e88953b839c7ba0be3198e6a61afc8a74c0b3e76696a-d

packagefile internal/abi=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/abi.a
packagefile internal/bytealg=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/bytealg.a
packagefile internal/cpu=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/cpu.a
packagefile internal/goarch=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/goarch.a
packagefile internal/goexperiment=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/goexperiment.a
packagefile internal/goos=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/goos.a
packagefile runtime/internal/atomic=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/runtime/internal/atomic.a
packagefile runtime/internal/math=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/runtime/internal/math.a
packagefile runtime/internal/sys=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/runtime/internal/sys.a
modinfo "0w\xaf\f\x92t\b\x02A\xe1\xc1\a\xe6\xd6\x18\xe6path\tdemo1\nmod\tdemo1\t(devel)\t\nbuild\t-compiler=gc\nbuild\tCGO_ENABLED=1\nbuild\tCGO_CFLAGS=\nbuild\tCGO_CPPFLAGS=\nbuild\tCGO_CXXFLAGS=\nbuild\tCGO_LDFLAGS=\nbuild\tGOARCH=amd64\nbuild\tGOOS=darwin\nbuild\tGOAMD64=v1\nbuild\tvcs=git\nbuild\tvcs.revision=6534186d4b5b80c6c056237191fc703fa99cd19e\nbuild\tvcs.time=2022-03-12T13:52:57Z\nbuild\tvcs.modified=true\n\xf92C1\x86\x18 r\x00\x82B\x10A\x16\xd8\xf2"
EOF
mkdir -p $WORK/b001/exe/
cd .
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/link -o $WORK/b001/exe/a.out -importcfg $WORK/b001/importcfg.link -buildmode=exe -buildid=mzN3WRwHiNhsESy6r89L/ZhPqHmBh6WQ6HFsDI1Yh/Nvx0U2gM2zWzj7FTESXk/mzN3WRwHiNhsESy6r89L -extld=clang /Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/e8/e86257379cbdd59856f799594b63f3bb33ae89011955fee50e6fe90d3809ce5a-d
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/buildid -w $WORK/b001/exe/a.out # internal
mv $WORK/b001/exe/a.out demo1
rm -r $WORK/b001/

通过go build命令输出的日志我们看到:go build并没有重新编译各个包中的源文件,而是直接使用上一次构建缓存在cache中的demo1、demo1/pkg1和demo1/pkg2进行链接并输出最终可执行文件。初步判断,Go编译器是可以识别出项目中的源文件是否发生了改变并决定是否对其重新编译的。

c) 新增pkg3

我们为demo1新增pkg3,并在main.go中调用pkg3包中的函数,相当于建立了一个对pkg3的依赖,然后我们再来build一下该项目:

$go build -x -v
WORK=/var/folders/cz/sbj5kg2d3m3c6j650z0qfm800000gn/T/go-build3890553968
cd /Users/tonybai/test/go
git status --porcelain
cd /Users/tonybai/test/go
git show -s --no-show-signature --format=%H:%ct
demo1/pkg3
mkdir -p $WORK/b004/
cat >$WORK/b004/importcfg << 'EOF' # internal
# import config
EOF

### 笔者注:构建pkg3

cd /Users/tonybai/test/go/incremental-build/demo1
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/compile -o $WORK/b004/_pkg_.a -trimpath "$WORK/b004=>" -p demo1/pkg3 -lang=go1.18 -complete -buildid yVeHBkrjxeJ1Ib-jc5Fu/yVeHBkrjxeJ1Ib-jc5Fu -goversion go1.18rc1 -c=4 -nolocalimports -importcfg $WORK/b004/importcfg -pack ./pkg3/pkg3.go
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/buildid -w $WORK/b004/_pkg_.a # internal
cp $WORK/b004/_pkg_.a /Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/2c/2c02674d62c50d4f2b8439c9314ef51b3e211d45d4114fa495fdd0e20c43440d-d # internal
demo1
mkdir -p $WORK/b001/
cat >$WORK/b001/importcfg << 'EOF' # internal
# import config

### 笔者注:直接重用demo1/pkg1和demo1/pkg2在cache中的目标文件

packagefile demo1/pkg1=/Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/24/24519941f74b316c8e83f2d2462b62370692c5f56b04ec3df97e3124ff8b4633-d
packagefile demo1/pkg2=/Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/fe/fef7890aa0cf3bb97e872d2b49cd834a5fad87cd5d8bf052dca65e4cecb541d2-d
packagefile demo1/pkg3=$WORK/b004/_pkg_.a
packagefile runtime=/Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/0e/0e28018e12d646c32443e88953b839c7ba0be3198e6a61afc8a74c0b3e76696a-d
EOF

### 笔者注:重新编译main.go

/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/compile -o $WORK/b001/_pkg_.a -trimpath "$WORK/b001=>" -p main -lang=go1.18 -complete -buildid Jii_iiylmm9d82X_Mzem/Jii_iiylmm9d82X_Mzem -goversion go1.18rc1 -c=4 -nolocalimports -importcfg $WORK/b001/importcfg -pack ./main.go
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/buildid -w $WORK/b001/_pkg_.a # internal
cp $WORK/b001/_pkg_.a /Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/52/52b5b7e233ac17201702c26f1da97c5a23e42e68f74040d576905323a016f66e-d # internal
cat >$WORK/b001/importcfg.link << 'EOF' # internal
packagefile demo1=$WORK/b001/_pkg_.a
packagefile demo1/pkg1=/Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/24/24519941f74b316c8e83f2d2462b62370692c5f56b04ec3df97e3124ff8b4633-d
packagefile demo1/pkg2=/Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/fe/fef7890aa0cf3bb97e872d2b49cd834a5fad87cd5d8bf052dca65e4cecb541d2-d
packagefile demo1/pkg3=$WORK/b004/_pkg_.a
packagefile runtime=/Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/0e/0e28018e12d646c32443e88953b839c7ba0be3198e6a61afc8a74c0b3e76696a-d
packagefile internal/abi=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/abi.a
packagefile internal/bytealg=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/bytealg.a
packagefile internal/cpu=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/cpu.a
packagefile internal/goarch=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/goarch.a
packagefile internal/goexperiment=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/goexperiment.a
packagefile internal/goos=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/goos.a
packagefile runtime/internal/atomic=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/runtime/internal/atomic.a
packagefile runtime/internal/math=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/runtime/internal/math.a
packagefile runtime/internal/sys=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/runtime/internal/sys.a
modinfo "0w\xaf\f\x92t\b\x02A\xe1\xc1\a\xe6\xd6\x18\xe6path\tdemo1\nmod\tdemo1\t(devel)\t\nbuild\t-compiler=gc\nbuild\tCGO_ENABLED=1\nbuild\tCGO_CFLAGS=\nbuild\tCGO_CPPFLAGS=\nbuild\tCGO_CXXFLAGS=\nbuild\tCGO_LDFLAGS=\nbuild\tGOARCH=amd64\nbuild\tGOOS=darwin\nbuild\tGOAMD64=v1\nbuild\tvcs=git\nbuild\tvcs.revision=6534186d4b5b80c6c056237191fc703fa99cd19e\nbuild\tvcs.time=2022-03-12T13:52:57Z\nbuild\tvcs.modified=true\n\xf92C1\x86\x18 r\x00\x82B\x10A\x16\xd8\xf2"
EOF
mkdir -p $WORK/b001/exe/
cd .
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/link -o $WORK/b001/exe/a.out -importcfg $WORK/b001/importcfg.link -buildmode=exe -buildid=GM4wTB4eDZmuIuIaQgup/Jii_iiylmm9d82X_Mzem/5aVh7LKgEkk3c4g5_WBq/GM4wTB4eDZmuIuIaQgup -extld=clang $WORK/b001/_pkg_.a
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/buildid -w $WORK/b001/exe/a.out # internal
mv $WORK/b001/exe/a.out demo1
rm -r $WORK/b001/

我们看到Go只是编译了新增的pkg3以及依赖pkg3的main.go,pkg1和pkg2包并未被重新编译,而是直接使用了缓存在gocache中的中间目标文件。

d) 重新编译单个变更的源文件还是重新编译整个包?

如果一个go package包含多个源文件,当某一个源文件发生内容变化时,go编译器是只会编译该源文件还是整个包呢?我们来验证一下。

我们为pkg3添加另外一个源文件pkg3_1.go,然后做一次构建。之后再修改pkg3_1.go,再做构建:

$go build -x -v
WORK=/var/folders/cz/sbj5kg2d3m3c6j650z0qfm800000gn/T/go-build213842995
cd /Users/tonybai/test/go
git status --porcelain
cd /Users/tonybai/test/go
git show -s --no-show-signature --format=%H:%ct
demo1/pkg3
mkdir -p $WORK/b004/
cat >$WORK/b004/importcfg << 'EOF' # internal
# import config
EOF
cd /Users/tonybai/test/go/incremental-build/demo1

### 笔者注:编译pkg3包

/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/compile -o $WORK/b004/_pkg_.a -trimpath "$WORK/b004=>" -p demo1/pkg3 -lang=go1.18 -complete -buildid pX9UOIUBAZfMKmMgHv3q/pX9UOIUBAZfMKmMgHv3q -goversion go1.18rc1 -c=4 -nolocalimports -importcfg $WORK/b004/importcfg -pack ./pkg3/pkg3.go ./pkg3/pkg3_1.go
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/buildid -w $WORK/b004/_pkg_.a # internal
cp $WORK/b004/_pkg_.a /Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/0c/0c3ce444d214c6c2999ba01b01eb4888c7864947d88bfcf63a41db4ac44002c2-d # internal
demo1
mkdir -p $WORK/b001/
cat >$WORK/b001/importcfg << 'EOF' # internal
# import config
packagefile demo1/pkg1=/Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/24/24519941f74b316c8e83f2d2462b62370692c5f56b04ec3df97e3124ff8b4633-d
packagefile demo1/pkg2=/Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/fe/fef7890aa0cf3bb97e872d2b49cd834a5fad87cd5d8bf052dca65e4cecb541d2-d
packagefile demo1/pkg3=$WORK/b004/_pkg_.a
packagefile runtime=/Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/0e/0e28018e12d646c32443e88953b839c7ba0be3198e6a61afc8a74c0b3e76696a-d
EOF

### 笔者注:编译依赖pkg3包的main.go

/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/compile -o $WORK/b001/_pkg_.a -trimpath "$WORK/b001=>" -p main -lang=go1.18 -complete -buildid cQBq3r5n1_wurKrb8Xmq/cQBq3r5n1_wurKrb8Xmq -goversion go1.18rc1 -c=4 -nolocalimports -importcfg $WORK/b001/importcfg -pack ./main.go
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/buildid -w $WORK/b001/_pkg_.a # internal
cp $WORK/b001/_pkg_.a /Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/e2/e2818b14455f4dd54caf5f731c7b3b6b8254a37a8912e73c33b327771069bde7-d # internal
cat >$WORK/b001/importcfg.link << 'EOF' # internal
packagefile demo1=$WORK/b001/_pkg_.a
packagefile demo1/pkg1=/Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/24/24519941f74b316c8e83f2d2462b62370692c5f56b04ec3df97e3124ff8b4633-d
packagefile demo1/pkg2=/Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/fe/fef7890aa0cf3bb97e872d2b49cd834a5fad87cd5d8bf052dca65e4cecb541d2-d
packagefile demo1/pkg3=$WORK/b004/_pkg_.a
packagefile runtime=/Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/0e/0e28018e12d646c32443e88953b839c7ba0be3198e6a61afc8a74c0b3e76696a-d
packagefile internal/abi=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/abi.a
packagefile internal/bytealg=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/bytealg.a
packagefile internal/cpu=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/cpu.a
packagefile internal/goarch=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/goarch.a
packagefile internal/goexperiment=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/goexperiment.a
packagefile internal/goos=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/goos.a
packagefile runtime/internal/atomic=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/runtime/internal/atomic.a
packagefile runtime/internal/math=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/runtime/internal/math.a
packagefile runtime/internal/sys=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/runtime/internal/sys.a
modinfo "0w\xaf\f\x92t\b\x02A\xe1\xc1\a\xe6\xd6\x18\xe6path\tdemo1\nmod\tdemo1\t(devel)\t\nbuild\t-compiler=gc\nbuild\tCGO_ENABLED=1\nbuild\tCGO_CFLAGS=\nbuild\tCGO_CPPFLAGS=\nbuild\tCGO_CXXFLAGS=\nbuild\tCGO_LDFLAGS=\nbuild\tGOARCH=amd64\nbuild\tGOOS=darwin\nbuild\tGOAMD64=v1\nbuild\tvcs=git\nbuild\tvcs.revision=6534186d4b5b80c6c056237191fc703fa99cd19e\nbuild\tvcs.time=2022-03-12T13:52:57Z\nbuild\tvcs.modified=true\n\xf92C1\x86\x18 r\x00\x82B\x10A\x16\xd8\xf2"
EOF
mkdir -p $WORK/b001/exe/
cd .
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/link -o $WORK/b001/exe/a.out -importcfg $WORK/b001/importcfg.link -buildmode=exe -buildid=qvFsK1K1jm8CeANRL3a2/cQBq3r5n1_wurKrb8Xmq/BB3nEx0b9edm7IM0XGAQ/qvFsK1K1jm8CeANRL3a2 -extld=clang $WORK/b001/_pkg_.a
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/buildid -w $WORK/b001/exe/a.out # internal
mv $WORK/b001/exe/a.out demo1
rm -r $WORK/b001/

我们看到:虽然只修改了pkg3包下面的源文件pkg3_1.go,但go build还是会将整个包的所有源文件都重新编译一次。依赖pkg3包的main.go也会被随之重新编译。就此可以证实,Go的增量编译是以Go包为基本单位的,而不是以单个源文件为单位的。这与go工具缓存在gocache中的中间目标文件(pkg.a)以包为单位的是一致的。

e) 当间接依赖的包发生了变动

前面的示例展示的都是直接依赖包发生变动后,增量构建涵盖的编译单元范畴。如果某个包的间接依赖包发生变化,该包是否会参与增量构建呢?答案是肯定的。我们继续用示例来证明一下。

我们为该demo1项目增加pkg4包,并使得pkg3依赖pkg4。这样就会出现main.go直接依赖pkg3包,间接依赖pkg4包的情况。我们在添加完pkg4包后,进行一次构建。之后修改pkg4包的部分内容,然后再执行构建,其输出日志如下:

$go build -x -v
WORK=/var/folders/cz/sbj5kg2d3m3c6j650z0qfm800000gn/T/go-build2817187631
cd /Users/tonybai/test/go
git status --porcelain
cd /Users/tonybai/test/go
git show -s --no-show-signature --format=%H:%ct
demo1/pkg4
mkdir -p $WORK/b005/
cat >$WORK/b005/importcfg << 'EOF' # internal
# import config
EOF

### 笔者注:编译demo1/pkg4包

cd /Users/tonybai/test/go/incremental-build/demo1
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/compile -o $WORK/b005/_pkg_.a -trimpath "$WORK/b005=>" -p demo1/pkg4 -lang=go1.18 -complete -buildid AIv0TfCgKL2o00SexGru/AIv0TfCgKL2o00SexGru -goversion go1.18rc1 -c=4 -nolocalimports -importcfg $WORK/b005/importcfg -pack ./pkg4/pkg4.go
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/buildid -w $WORK/b005/_pkg_.a # internal
cp $WORK/b005/_pkg_.a /Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/7e/7e2b8f229f8ca2f1ee315438f61cad5421bb5af9ed155e88a460faca806f4f90-d # internal
demo1/pkg3
mkdir -p $WORK/b004/
cat >$WORK/b004/importcfg << 'EOF' # internal
# import config
packagefile demo1/pkg4=$WORK/b005/_pkg_.a
EOF

### 笔者注:编译直接依赖demo1/pkg4包的demo1/pkg3包

/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/compile -o $WORK/b004/_pkg_.a -trimpath "$WORK/b004=>" -p demo1/pkg3 -lang=go1.18 -complete -buildid ObVmRzLu3J1liPWzEiXx/ObVmRzLu3J1liPWzEiXx -goversion go1.18rc1 -c=4 -nolocalimports -importcfg $WORK/b004/importcfg -pack ./pkg3/pkg3.go ./pkg3/pkg3_1.go
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/buildid -w $WORK/b004/_pkg_.a # internal
cp $WORK/b004/_pkg_.a /Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/4f/4f69cad7558ecf297799e29353bc802415785847c195555c22151f52abe1d9d9-d # internal
demo1
mkdir -p $WORK/b001/
cat >$WORK/b001/importcfg << 'EOF' # internal
# import config
packagefile demo1/pkg1=/Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/24/24519941f74b316c8e83f2d2462b62370692c5f56b04ec3df97e3124ff8b4633-d
packagefile demo1/pkg2=/Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/fe/fef7890aa0cf3bb97e872d2b49cd834a5fad87cd5d8bf052dca65e4cecb541d2-d
packagefile demo1/pkg3=$WORK/b004/_pkg_.a
packagefile runtime=/Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/0e/0e28018e12d646c32443e88953b839c7ba0be3198e6a61afc8a74c0b3e76696a-d
EOF

### 笔者注:编译间接依赖demo1/pkg4包的main.go

/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/compile -o $WORK/b001/_pkg_.a -trimpath "$WORK/b001=>" -p main -lang=go1.18 -complete -buildid i543xzAqlwVlWgQBYhsS/i543xzAqlwVlWgQBYhsS -goversion go1.18rc1 -c=4 -nolocalimports -importcfg $WORK/b001/importcfg -pack ./main.go
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/buildid -w $WORK/b001/_pkg_.a # internal
cp $WORK/b001/_pkg_.a /Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/67/67a5ff80f6dbbbe01fcf9efb4d6ff380cb27fd1723b06b209a17987f1c74f425-d # internal
cat >$WORK/b001/importcfg.link << 'EOF' # internal
packagefile demo1=$WORK/b001/_pkg_.a
packagefile demo1/pkg1=/Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/24/24519941f74b316c8e83f2d2462b62370692c5f56b04ec3df97e3124ff8b4633-d
packagefile demo1/pkg2=/Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/fe/fef7890aa0cf3bb97e872d2b49cd834a5fad87cd5d8bf052dca65e4cecb541d2-d
packagefile demo1/pkg3=$WORK/b004/_pkg_.a
packagefile runtime=/Users/tonybai/Library/Caches/go-build/0e/0e28018e12d646c32443e88953b839c7ba0be3198e6a61afc8a74c0b3e76696a-d
packagefile demo1/pkg4=$WORK/b005/_pkg_.a
packagefile internal/abi=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/abi.a
packagefile internal/bytealg=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/bytealg.a
packagefile internal/cpu=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/cpu.a
packagefile internal/goarch=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/goarch.a
packagefile internal/goexperiment=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/goexperiment.a
packagefile internal/goos=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/internal/goos.a
packagefile runtime/internal/atomic=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/runtime/internal/atomic.a
packagefile runtime/internal/math=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/runtime/internal/math.a
packagefile runtime/internal/sys=/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/darwin_amd64/runtime/internal/sys.a
modinfo "0w\xaf\f\x92t\b\x02A\xe1\xc1\a\xe6\xd6\x18\xe6path\tdemo1\nmod\tdemo1\t(devel)\t\nbuild\t-compiler=gc\nbuild\tCGO_ENABLED=1\nbuild\tCGO_CFLAGS=\nbuild\tCGO_CPPFLAGS=\nbuild\tCGO_CXXFLAGS=\nbuild\tCGO_LDFLAGS=\nbuild\tGOARCH=amd64\nbuild\tGOOS=darwin\nbuild\tGOAMD64=v1\nbuild\tvcs=git\nbuild\tvcs.revision=6534186d4b5b80c6c056237191fc703fa99cd19e\nbuild\tvcs.time=2022-03-12T13:52:57Z\nbuild\tvcs.modified=true\n\xf92C1\x86\x18 r\x00\x82B\x10A\x16\xd8\xf2"
EOF
mkdir -p $WORK/b001/exe/
cd .
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/link -o $WORK/b001/exe/a.out -importcfg $WORK/b001/importcfg.link -buildmode=exe -buildid=5U4vzFHU8ahkEvKH4-CV/i543xzAqlwVlWgQBYhsS/GOFyatqByKmjWK1zLLiq/5U4vzFHU8ahkEvKH4-CV -extld=clang $WORK/b001/_pkg_.a
/Users/tonybai/.bin/go1.18rc1/pkg/tool/darwin_amd64/buildid -w $WORK/b001/exe/a.out # internal
mv $WORK/b001/exe/a.out demo1
rm -r $WORK/b001/

我们看到:pkg4包修改后,无论是直接依赖pkg4的包,还是间接依赖pkg4的包都会在下次增量构建时被重新编译。

3. 小结

由上面的示例我们看到:Go编译器是原生支持增量构建的,无需第三方构建管理工具的辅助。Go的增量构建是建立在Go 1.10引入的build cache机制的基础上的。Go的增量构建以Go包为单位,当Go包中的任一源文件发生变化时,Go都会对其进行重新构建,并且会连带构建所有直接或间接依赖该包的Go包。

本文示例源码在这里可以下载。


“Gopher部落”知识星球旨在打造一个精品Go学习和进阶社群!高品质首发Go技术文章,“三天”首发阅读权,每年两期Go语言发展现状分析,每天提前1小时阅读到新鲜的Gopher日报,网课、技术专栏、图书内容前瞻,六小时内必答保证等满足你关于Go语言生态的所有需求!2022年,Gopher部落全面改版,将持续分享Go语言与Go应用领域的知识、技巧与实践,并增加诸多互动形式。欢迎大家加入!

img{512x368}

img{512x368}
img{512x368}
img{512x368}

我爱发短信:企业级短信平台定制开发专家 https://51smspush.com/。smspush : 可部署在企业内部的定制化短信平台,三网覆盖,不惧大并发接入,可定制扩展; 短信内容你来定,不再受约束, 接口丰富,支持长短信,签名可选。2020年4月8日,中国三大电信运营商联合发布《5G消息白皮书》,51短信平台也会全新升级到“51商用消息平台”,全面支持5G RCS消息。

著名云主机服务厂商DigitalOcean发布最新的主机计划,入门级Droplet配置升级为:1 core CPU、1G内存、25G高速SSD,价格5$/月。有使用DigitalOcean需求的朋友,可以打开这个链接地址:https://m.do.co/c/bff6eed92687 开启你的DO主机之路。

Gopher Daily(Gopher每日新闻)归档仓库 – https://github.com/bigwhite/gopherdaily

我的联系方式:

  • 微博:https://weibo.com/bigwhite20xx
  • 微信公众号:iamtonybai
  • 博客:tonybai.com
  • github: https://github.com/bigwhite
  • “Gopher部落”知识星球:https://public.zsxq.com/groups/51284458844544

商务合作方式:撰稿、出书、培训、在线课程、合伙创业、咨询、广告合作。

如发现本站页面被黑,比如:挂载广告、挖矿等恶意代码,请朋友们及时联系我。十分感谢! Go语言第一课 Go语言精进之路1 Go语言精进之路2 商务合作请联系bigwhite.cn AT aliyun.com

欢迎使用邮件订阅我的博客

输入邮箱订阅本站,只要有新文章发布,就会第一时间发送邮件通知你哦!

这里是 Tony Bai的个人Blog,欢迎访问、订阅和留言! 订阅Feed请点击上面图片

如果您觉得这里的文章对您有帮助,请扫描上方二维码进行捐赠 ,加油后的Tony Bai将会为您呈现更多精彩的文章,谢谢!

如果您希望通过微信捐赠,请用微信客户端扫描下方赞赏码:

如果您希望通过比特币或以太币捐赠,可以扫描下方二维码:

比特币:

以太币:

如果您喜欢通过微信浏览本站内容,可以扫描下方二维码,订阅本站官方微信订阅号“iamtonybai”;点击二维码,可直达本人官方微博主页^_^:
本站Powered by Digital Ocean VPS。
选择Digital Ocean VPS主机,即可获得10美元现金充值,可 免费使用两个月哟! 著名主机提供商Linode 10$优惠码:linode10,在 这里注册即可免费获 得。阿里云推荐码: 1WFZ0V立享9折!


View Tony Bai's profile on LinkedIn

文章

评论

  • 正在加载...

分类

标签

归档



View My Stats